Abstracts and Papers


Chinese Multinational Corporations
Through African Eyes

Chris ALDEN, London School of Economics


On China-African Relations in the Discourse of “China's Peaceful Rise”
Li Anshan

 

Exploring both optimistic and pessimistic views on China's rise, the paper studies the continuity and change of China's Africa policy, as well as the pattern and characteristics of China-African cooperation in the discourse. It explores the three transformations of China's policy towards Africa, e.g., highlighting ideology changed to less stress on it, singular interaction to multi-factoral exchange, and emphasis on economic aid to bilateralism and win-win strategy. The author argues that the diplomacy in chief set up the base of China-Africa relations, the idea of equality and the sense of win-win serve as the soul and essence of the bilateral relations, and the standardization and mechanism become the guarantee of the continuity of China-Africa cooperation. The author also criticized three viewpoints regarding the issue and pointed out the new challenges for China-African cooperation in the future.

[Full Paper]

 

中国的“和平崛起”话语中的中非关系
李安山

 

本文从探索关于中国崛起的积极和消极两种视角入手,研究中国对非政策的连贯性和变化,以及中非合作的形式和特征。本文探索了中国对非政策的三种变化,比如,从强调到更少强调意识形态,从单一互动到多方交流,从强调经济援助到双赢政策。作者指出,外交为中非关系的主要基础,平等的观念与双赢的意识成为双边关系的灵魂与本质,而标准化与体制化则成为中非合作一贯性的保障。作者还批判了关于这个问题的三种看法,并指出了将来中非合作所面临的挑战。

[全文]

 


Effects and Problems of Sino-African Education Cooperation
Li Baoping

 

This paper reviews the course of Sino-African Education Cooperation from 1949 till present, and also summarizes its characteristics, experience, and lessons. The more-than-50-year Sino-African Education Cooperation has not incurred great cost, but has produced great effect. Nowadays, Sino-African education cooperation mainly is China's aid to Africa, not yet bidirectional. If China makes good use of African education resource, such as inviting African scholars to give lectures in China and dispatching Chinese scholars to Africa for advanced studies, it will greatly help training China's Africa scholars. China hasn't paid much attention to people-to-people exchanges in education, and this kind of development, such as dispatching a number of volunteers to Africa, will add new meanings to the development of Sino-African relationship. A deepening and effective development of Sino-African cooperation in education and culture will help counteract the adverse effect of Sino-African relationship.

[Full Paper]

 

中非教育合作中的成效与问题
李保平

 

本文回顾1949 年至今中国与非洲教育合作的历程,总结其特点、经验和教训。50 多年的中非教育合作,代价不多,成效很大。目前中国非洲教育合作主要是中国援助非洲,而不是双向的。如果重视非洲的教育资源,比如邀请非洲国家 的学者来华讲学、派遣中国学者到非洲访学、进修,将对培养中国的非洲通很有帮助。中国对民间教育交流重视不够,这方面的进展,如大量派遣志愿者赴非等,将为中非关系的开展增加新的内涵。中国与非洲间教育文化合作的深入和富有成效的进展,将有助于抵消中国对非关系中的负面效果。

[全文]

 


Domestic Transformations and Change in Sino-African Relations
Guillaume Moumoni

 

I wish to explain the change in Sino-African relations from the standpoint of domestic transformations, both in China and Africa, with the Western factor acting as the intervening variable. That is, the change (political, economic and strategic) is directly linked to the Chinese Open-Door Policy and the vast movement of democratization and economic (re)construction in many an African countries. It seems that the "disengagement" of former colonial states and the US from Africa has favored such a change.

[Full Paper]

 

国内改革和中非关系的变化
Guillaume Moumoni

 

我想从国内改革的角度谈谈中非关系的变化,而无论在中国还是非洲的国内改革,西方因素都扮演着介入变数的角色。也就是说,这种改变(政治的、经济的、战略的)直接与中国的开放政策和许多非洲国家大刀阔斧的民主化进程和经济改革相关。而似乎前殖民国家和美国从非洲的“脱离”也促成了这种改变。

[全文]

 


China's Assistance to Africa, a Stone Bridge of Sino-African Relaitons
Maurice Gountin

 

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, China and African nations came to get together mainly guided par the political struggle just in the period after the Second World War. But due to the economic weakness of African nations, and also because of the China's ambition to lead the third world, China has been providing assistance to African nations. After the China's economic reform and the opening to the outside world in the late 70's of the last century, especially from the mid of the 90's,China's relations with Africa nations knew changes due to the interest of China into Africa's natural resources. This turn of China's attitude to Africa didn't change too much China's assistance to Africa. In 2000, the opening of the China-Africa forum inaugurated a new step in the two entities relations, but still the assistance of China remains a stone bridge of Sino-Africa relations.

[Full Paper]

 

中国对非援助,中非关系的桥梁
Maurice Gountin

 

中华人民共和国建立以后,中国和非洲国家主要是由于二次世界大战后一段时期内一致的政治斗争而走到了一起。但由于非洲国家经济落后,同时中国也希望能领导第三世界,所以中国一直以来都对非洲国家提供援助。在上世纪70 年代末中国经济改革和对外开放以后,特别是从90 年代中期开始,由于中国对非洲的自然资源产生兴趣,中国和非洲国家的关系面临变化。但中国这种对非态度的转变并没有太多地改变中国的对非援助。在2000 年,中非峰会的举行使双方的关系迈出了全新的一步,但中国的援助仍是中非关系的桥梁。

[全文]

 


The Nature of Sino-African Relations: Its Uniqueness and Beyond.
Liu Naiya

 

Colonialism is a significant factor running through global historical development. Although new colonialism
and old colonialism have different manifestations, they share common features. The West accuses China of
conducting new colonialism in Africa, but it actually is a false claim not consistent with the reality. Its error
lies in severing the inner correlation between the new and old colonialism. At the same time, it reveals their
ignorance about China's peaceful foreign policy. To respond to this false accusation is not to struggle for
some kind of discursive power, but to maintain justice and to restore history.

[Full Paper]

 

中非关系的实质:其唯一性及更深层面
刘乃亚

 

殖民主义是贯穿世界历史发展的重要线索。新旧殖民主义虽然表现形式不同,但是在本质属性上具有共性特点。西方指责中国在非洲搞新殖民主义,是与事实不符的错误言论。其错误在于它割裂了新旧殖民主义的内在联系性,同时也暴露了他们对中国和平外交政策的无知和无视。对西方不实言论予以回应,目的不在于争夺某种政治话语权,而是要维护公正并还原历史的真实性。

[全文]

 


Moving forward with the time: The evolution of China's African policy
He Wenping

 

Being the largest developing country in the world, China has always attached great importance to developing
good relations with Africa, the continent where the largest number of developing countries is located. To
strengthen the unity and cooperation with African countries is always the basic foothold and important
strategic foundation of China's independent and peaceful foreign policy.

Generally speaking, the fundamental principle and guideline of China's African policy in the fifty years are coherent and consistent. But with the development and changes of international situations and China's comprehensive diplomatic strategy, China's African policy has also developed and enriched with the time.

From 1949 to the end of 1970s, faced with diplomatic isolation and the strategic besiege from the former
Soviet Union and the US, the newly born Chinese government turned its eyes to “the third world” including Africa. Sino-African relationship was naturally expressed with rich ideology and reinforcement of political benefits.

In the whole 1980s, since China itself has adopted “reform and opening-up” policy and its relations with the western countries has been normalized, the guiding principle of China's diplomacy has been changed from ideological idealism to pragmatic realism, from the unconditional internationalism to the priority of the national interest. Sino-African relations in this period were expressed with weakening ideology and valuing economic benefits. China has firmly supported African countries making their own choice on the way of development and to seek economic cooperation and common development.

After the cold war and until now, China has attached importance to Africa in both political and economic benefits and developed bilateral relations with African countries in an all-round way. The bilateral relationship has not only expressed in the field of politics and economics, and also focused on cultural, security, personnel exchange and training. To establish a new type of strategic partnership with Africa, featuring political equality and mutual trust, economic win-win cooperation, cultural exchange and learn from each other, security cooperation and coordination in the international affairs, has serving as the new core element of China's African policy.

[Full Paper]

 

与时俱进:中国对非政策的演变”
贺文萍

 

作为世界最大的发展中国家,中国一直非常重视与非洲这个拥有最多发展中国家的大洲发展友好关系。加强与非洲国家的联合和协作一直是中国独立自主和平外交政策的基本立足点和重要的战略基础。

总体来说,中国50 年来对非政策的基本原则和方针是连贯一致的。但随着国际环境以及中国整体外交战略的发展和改变,中国的对非政策也相应发展和与时俱进。从1949 年到二十世纪70 年代末,面临前苏联和美国的外交孤立和战略围攻,新中国将眼光转向了包括非洲在内的“第三世界”。中非关系自然被认为是强化意识形态和政治利益。


在整个二十世纪80 年代,由于中国自身采用改革开放政策和中国与西方关系的正常化,中国外交的导向原则已经从意识形态的理想主义向国家实际转变,从绝对国际主义向国家利益优先转变。这一期间的中非关系被认为是弱化意识形态而重视经济利益的。中国坚决支持非洲国家在发展的道路上做出自己的选择和寻求经济合作和共同发展。


冷战后迄今为止,中国一直在政治和经济利益上非常重视非洲,并与非洲国家发展了全方位的双边关系。这种双边关系不仅只是政治和经济领域,而且着眼于文化、安全、人员交流和培训上。为了与非洲建立新型的战略伙伴关系,政治上平等和相互信任、双赢的经济合作,文化交流和相互学习,在国际事务中相互的安全合作和协调,已成为中国对非政策新的核心元素。

[全文]

 


Legal Co-operarions of China and African States: Past, Present and Future
Hong Yonghong

 

After the founding of the People's Republic, the earliest legal co-operation between China and African States was at the Asia-African Conference in 1955. During the early time, Sino-African co-operations were through bilateral agreements, which included medical teams, trade, culture, and establishing diplomatic relations. Since 1990s, both sides started substantial legal co-operations, dealing with communications of legal scholars and judicial officers, as well as judicial assistances. More and more legal co-operations will develop in the
future.

[Full Paper]

 

中国和非洲国家的司法合作:过去、现在和将来
洪永红

 

新中国成立后,中国与非洲国家的早期司法合作是在1955 年的亚非会议上。此前,中非之间的合作是通过双边的协议,包括医疗组、商贸、文化和建立外交关系。二十世纪90 年代以后,双方才开始实质性的司法合作,包括法学家和司法人员之间的交流,以及司法援助。将来,司法合作将得到长足的发展。

[全文]

 


China's Resource Diplomacy in Africa
Ian Taylor

 

It is predicted that trade volume between China and Africa will top the $100 billion mark in the next five years. Of particular interest is China's growing expansion into Africa's oil markets. Indeed, it is arguably largely issues surrounding China's oil quest—in Africa that is provoking some concern in Western capitals. This paper seeks to specifically focus in on and explore China's interest in Africa's oil. In doing so, some of the main implications for Africa and for the West of China's oil diplomacy are unpacked and discussed. It is argued that Chinese oil diplomacy in Africa has two main goals: in the short-term secure oil supplies to help feed growing domestic demand back in China; and in the long-term position China as a global player in the international oil market. Energetically pursuing these aims whilst playing on African leaders' historic suspicion of Western intentions is how Beijing generally engages in its oil diplomacy on the continent. Problematic aspects of this policy are discussed.

[Full Paper]

 

中国对非资源 外交
Ian Taylor

 

未来五年中国和非洲之间的商贸总量预期将达到1000 亿美元。尤其引人关注的是中国在非洲石油市场的快速发展。事实上,我们可以论证,在很大程度上,真正引发西方首府关注的是围绕中国对非洲石油的需求而产生的各种问题。本论文试图重点关注和探究中国对非洲石油的兴趣。为此,我们先来分析和讨论一些主要关于非洲和中国西部石油外交的问题。有争论说中国对非的石油外交有两个主要目的:从短期来说,保证石油供应以帮助满足国内快速增长的需求; 从长远来看,使中国在国际石油市场上处于全球竞争者的地位。一方面积极致力于这些目标,同时在非洲领导人对西方意图一贯的猜疑上做文章,是北京在这片大陆上从事其石油外交的通常做法。这一政策一些有疑问的方面将得到论述。

[全文]

 


Voices of African Students in China
Sandra Gillespie
 

Within the context of international academic exchange, knowledge, resources, and people have moved across nations for centuries. Despite this long historical precedent, however, the present movement differs from the past in that it flows in a largely South to North direction. Past research has reflected this phenomenon.

Research on international student exchange has been conducted almost entirely from the perspective of the ‘Third World' student in the ‘First World'. As a result, research on the flow of international students among Third World nations is lacking. This study aims to begin to fill this gap and contribute to a larger understanding of international academic relations.

This study investigates the transfer of knowledge on a South-South dimension. Specifically, it considers China's educational cooperation with Africa, with a special concern for issues of sustainable and equitable development. A detailed description of the African student experience in China is provided through quantified data, obtained from a questionnaire. Qualitative data, gathered through individual and group interviews with both African and Chinese parties, adds interpretive depth to the description. This data is considered in the light of two bodies of literature related to views of international academic relations. A review of the literature on China's changing world view, focusing on China's Third World Policy under the reign of Mao Zedong, provides the historical context. The literature on the changing approaches to international academic relations, focusing on the theories of the World Order Models Project, provides the theoretical context. These two transformative approaches to international relations form an evaluative framework in which Sino-African relations are examined within a global milieu. This study reveals that while Sino-African exchanges currently play a supportive role in the international arena, potential signs to promote greater equality are beginning to emerge from this South-South collaboration.

[Full Paper][References]

 

非洲留华学生的声音
Sandra Gillespie

 

国际学术交流、知识、资源和人们已经跨国移动数个世纪了,尽管有很长的历史先例,但是现代的移动有别于以往,即在很大程度是由南朝北的定向移动。过去的调研已经反映了这一现象。


针对国际间学生交流的研究已被引导至几乎全部来自对“第三世界”学生在“第一世界”的观察。
结果,针对第三世界国家国际学生流动的调研却很缺乏。


本研究调查了“南-南知识交流”情况,特别是从可持续与双向平衡的角度研究中国与非洲的教育
合作。通过问卷调查,本人对非洲学生在中国的经历进行了定量描述,而由中非两国的政党通过个访谈与小组访问的方式得到的定性方面的数据则增加了该描述的深度。这些数据是基于与国际学 术关系相关的两种文学体系而进行考虑的。对毛泽东时期变化中的中国世界观,重点是对中国的第三世界政策的文献回顾,为我们提供的历史内容。这两个变化中的国际关系研究方法形成了一个评估框架,在这个框架中,中非关系是在一个全球环境中进行调查的。本研究表明,当今中非交流在国际舞台上扮演着一个支援的角色,同时,从“南-南合作”的角度看,潜在的促进更大的平等性的迹象也开始显现。

[全文][參考文獻]

 


Aid within the Wider China-Africa Partnership: A view from the Beijing Summit
Kenneth King
 

China's re-emergence as a global player in development and cooperation will have been very visible at the Sino-African presidential summit in Beijing a week before this Workshop.

The paper will accordingly examine how China prefers to view its engagement with Africa, and how African leaders see China. It will also identify where development assistance fits within this wider strategic partnership. In passing, it will review the evidence for China's becoming involved in what is sometimes thought of as the world's international development agenda such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) processes, as well as the current forms of donor coordination and harmonisation.

[Full Paper]